Eye Injections or Intravitreal injections

What is intravitreal injection?

This is a modality of treatment where a drug is injected inside the eye. It is used to treat a variety of conditions such as:

Patients with these conditions can lose central vision when abnormal blood vessels leak or bleed at the back of the eye.

There are also other types of anti-inflammatory drugs that can be injected into the eye if you have prolonged inflammation not responding to drops.

What are the drugs used for intravitreal injection?

There are 2 main groups of drugs that are approved for eye injections. They are used to treat a variety of eye conditions. They are:

1-Anti- VEGF injections

This is a group of medications called Anti-vascular Endothelial growth factor (Anti-VEGF)

  • Aflibercept (Eylea).
  • Ranibizumab (Lucentis).
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin).
  • Brolucizumab (Beovu).

2-Steroid implants

  • Dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex)
  • Fluocinolone (Iluvien)

Mr Ellabban will assess you and discuss with you which type of injection treatment is indicated in your case, details of the treatment, risks and benefits, and advise you about the procedure.  

How is the treatment given?

The drug is given by injection into your eye with a fine needle. The procedure takes 5-10 minutes, but the injection itself takes about 20 seconds.

  • Local anaesthetic drops are applied to numb your eye.
  • Your eyelids and eye surface are cleaned to prevent infection.
  • Your face and the area around your eye will be covered by a drape to keep the area sterile.
  • A small clip will be used to keep the eye open
  • A few seconds later, the injection is given.
  • Your vision is assessed post injection by checking hand movements or counting fingers and a final lot of antibiotic drops are instilled before the drapes are taken off

How does anti-VEGF work?

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a protein that promotes the growth of new blood vessels. and makes the blood vessels more leaky. Anti-VEGF medicines stop the growth of these new blood vessels. This can prevent damage to the retina and loss of central vision. These medicines are effective in preventing further central vision loss in up to 90% of treated eyes.

The treatment often requires multiple injections. Initially, the doctor usually starts the course with 3 injections, taken a month apart, then the treatment is tailored according to the response to the initial course.  You will be monitored at regular intervals with retinal scans to assess the response to treatment.

Mr Ellabban will assess you and discuss with you if you will benefit from the treatment and which treatment option is the best for you.

How does steroid implants work?

These are very tiny implants containing long-acting steroid medicine injected inside the ye via a special applicator. Steroids are known to have a potent anti-inflammatory effect that can help to treat eye inflammations or conditions that may cause eye inflammation. They are injected inside the eye in a similar fashion.

What are the risks from intravitreal injections?

As with any medical procedure, there is a small risk of complications following intravitreal injection treatment. Most complications that might occur are from the injection itself, rather than the drug. For most patients, the benefit of the treatment outweighs the small risk of injection injury.

These risks can be (rare):

  • Serious eye infection (one in 2,000 cases)
  • Increase in eye pressure (often temporary)
  • Blood clots and bleeding in the eye
  • Inflammation inside the eye
  • Cataract

Therefore, after the injection, if you experience any of the symptoms below, you should contact your eye specialist urgently;

  • Increasing pain/ache in the eye
  • Sudden decrease or change in vision
  • Increasing number of black dots (floaters)

Mr Ellabban will assess you and discuss with you which type of injection treatment is indicated in your case, details of treatment, risks and benefits, and advise you about the procedure.  

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